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Medical Device Sterilization

Bioburden reduction of consumer goods:

  • cosmetics
  • spices
  • herbs
  • toiletries
  • pharmaceutical raw materials
  • food packaging
  • dyes and colorants

Industrial products processing



Background radiation measured on the exterior wall of Scandinavian Clinics Estonia OÜ´s plant (μSv/h):

(Natural background radiation in Estonia may reach up to 0,3 μSv/h)



Survey area: 0,12 µSv/h;
Control area: 0,10 µSv/h;
Pool: 0,08 µSv/h



In water, light travels about 25% slower than it does in a vacuum and it is possible for an energetic particle to travel faster than light. (This is not possible in the vacuum where light is the fastest things there is!). When a particle travels faster than the speed of light in water, it produces a shock wave that is the equivalent of a sonic boom made by a jet travelling faster than the speed of sound in air. This shock wave takes the form of blue light called Cherenkov light, after the Russian physicist Pavel Cherenkov,wall of the detector.

  • Anthrax: The tragic events of September 11, 2001 has led to an increased level of security measures in society. Though not directly related, one such effort is to destroy anthrax spores ( sanitation) in mail and parcels. The only method on a large scale is irradiation by gamma.
  • Plastic stabilizers: Most plastics need stabilizers. These additives however often degrade, giving odour as a by-product. Common stabilizers are Irganox 1076 and Irgafos 168. These do not function well in PE. Irganox 1076 is however good for PS. Important to choose radiation resistent stabilizers.
  • Uranium: Graft polymerisation and crosslinking are attractive techniques for modification of the chemical and physical properties of conventional polymers. One unusual application developed by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute is a cheap method to absorb uranium from seawater. Most of the worlds uranium is to find in seawater. By grafting of  PE-coated PP non-woven sheets a highly productive adsorbant was created.
  • Surgical mats: Crosslinked polysaccaride is highly effective as surgical operation mats. The mat is considered to disperse the body pressure and to maintain the best circulation of blood during operation. One commercial application is the Japanese Non-bedsore. An extra advantage is that the material is biodegradable.
  • Drug delivery: Gelatin is used for foods, films, glues, moisturizers, medical devices and many other products. The human body temperature of 37oC is however too high for maintaining of the necessary mechanical strength. The solution is to crosslink the gelatin by irradiation. An important application is within Drug Delivery Systems.
  • Insulin: It is important to protect insulin from the acid environment of the stomach before releasing in the small intestine. This is made possible by grafting a pH-sensitive hydrogel and use it as a drug carrier.
  • Beehives: In  honey business, one big problem is the Paenibacillus larvae, a devastating parasite in beehives. The only known cleaning possibility seems to be irradiation of the hives (without bees!).
  • Polypropylene: If you add 2-3% irradiated  PP to normal PP you might get 10-15% quicker biological detoriation.
  • Planting pots: Such pots may be in polypropylene. If irradiated they will detoriate quicker. Within a year or so. Important when the plants want to send out roots to a wider area.
  • Semiconductors: Irradiation can be used for artificial aging of certain electronic components.
  • NaCl: These crystals cannot be irradiated without colour changes in grey to black.
  • EtO: EtO used on PVC will give small amounts of ethylene chloride hydrine, which boils at 280oC. It will certainly not disappear during normal quarantine conditions.
  • Crosslinked PE: The penetration rate of O2 is 50-60% less in PE crosslinked by irradiation than if the crosslinking has been made by peroxide.
  • EVA, crosslinked at 125 kGy will give resistance to temperatures up to 130oC. Good for e.g. infusion bags. There will however be a small remain of acetic acid. Below the threshold of 1 ppm prescribed by the Pharmacopeia.
  • PET as a substitute for glass works well.